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Topaz is a silicate mineral with aluminum and fluorine. It is usually colorless, yellow, and pink, but naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare, and nearly all blue topaz is artificially irradiated.
Making topaz blue takes months to years of artificial irradiation depending on the shade of blue you're after. It starts with colorless topaz crystals. The stones are bombarded with a beam of subatomic particles. These particles kick electrons out of orbit and cause other damage to the crystal lattice, which changes how light traveling through the crystal is absorbed and reflected, which changes the color.
These 4mm diameter, bright, blue topaz stones are set in bezel-less sterling silver studs.